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F 

254 
.B76 
1911 



9/0.7 

B79 



DODGE'S 
GEOGRAPHY 



OF 



NORTH CAROLINA 



BROOKS 
CARMICHAEL 




Rand M^Ndly & Co. 



Vol. 



LIBRARY 
Connecticut State College 



Class 



3Mhi mt 



Cost 



Date 



g^^j ^^j_ 1931 i 




BOOK 9 10 7.B79 c. 1 

BROOt'S # GFOGRAPHY nF N CAROLINA 

BY F r pRHOK'; AND W Q TARMICHAEL 



3 T153 DDEDbMTM T 



■ 6' 



This Book may be kept out 

TIVO JVEEKS 



to a f^re o^ 
1 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

By Eugene C. Brooks, Professor of Education, Trinity College, and William D. Carmichael, 
Superintendent of Durham City Schools, Durham. 



I. NORTH CAROLINA AS A WHOLE 

Position. North Carolina is the most 
northern of the Southern states of the Atlan- 
tic coast. (Comp. Geog., Fig. 238.) Its 
western boundary line, high above sea level, 
winds along the crest of the Appalachian 
Mountains; its eastern boundary is the 
seacoast. (Fig. 2.) On the north it joins 
Virginia and on the south, South Carolina and 
Georgia. It lies between thirty-three degrees 
fifty minutes and thirty-six degrees thirty- 
three minutes north latitude, and between 
seventy-five degrees twenty-seven minutes 
and eighty-four degrees twenty minutes west 
longitude. 

If we should travel northward from 
Raleigh, the capital (Comp. Geog., Fig. 192), 
we would pass near Niagara Falls. South- 



ward, we would pass through the central part 
of Cuba, and touch near the Panama Canal. 
(Comp. Geog., Fig. 161.) Going eastward, 
we would cross the Atlantic and touch the 
northern shore of Africa not far from 
Gibraltar. Continuing on the same parallel, 
we would pass through the island of Crete, 
the northern part of Palestine, southern 
Chosen (Korea), and Japan. Following the 
same line across the Pacific, we would 
pass through southern California, northern 
Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, 
and Tennessee. (Comp. Geog., Fig. 192.) 

Size. North Carolina is one of the 
largest states east of the Mississippi River. 
(Comp. Geog., Fig. 192.) Its extreme length 
from east to west is 503} miles and its extreme 
breadth is 187 J miles, the average breadth 
of the state being about one hundred 




Copyr'fttby Delroii PuMlshlog Compi 

Fig I. Lake Fairfield with Baid Rock in the background, one of three notable lakes in the heart of the Sapphire 

country. They lie high in the uplands, overtopped by many "balds," in a region abounding in wide 

stretches of primeval forests, many clear, health-giving springs, sunlit streams with 

almost continuous cascades, and dark, deeply eroded canyons. 



Fio. 2. ^ political map of North Carolina. 



Copyright, 1911, by Rami. McNally &• Company 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




ther navigation. This 
is called the "Fall 
Line." This hne ex- 
\ tends entirely across 
I the state, crossing the 
-^ Roanoke at Weldon, 
the Tar at Rocky 
Mount, the Neuse at 
Smithfield, the Cape 
Fear at Averasboro, 
and the Pedee or 
Fig. 3. A relief map of North Carolina. Yadkin River near 

miles. The area of North Carolina is 52,426 I Rockingham. (Fig. 2.) The region lying 
square miles, of which 3,686 square miles | between the ocean and the Fall Line is called 



are water and 48,740 
square miles land. 
Texas, Georgia, and 
Florida are the only 
states on the Atlantic 
and Gulf coast that are 
larger. If we should 
place North Carolina 
on the New England 
states it would cover 
Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, 
New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, and more than 
half of Maine. 
Surface. The state 




Fig. 



\'oti 



the Coastal Plain. 
(Comp.Geog.,Fig.i89.) 
It extends inland from 
the coast 120 to 160 
miles and has an area 
of about 25,000 square 
miles, or nearly one- 
half that of the state. 
A large part of the 
coastal region, especi- 
ally near the sounds, 
is so level and the 
streams have so little 
fall that the land is 
poorly drained. As a 
result there are many 



4. In III, ^Zi'amps of the Coastal I'lain. 
the moss-draped cypress and the projusic 
of water lilies. 

is divided naturally into three sections, each l large swamps. (Figs. 2 and 4.) The largest, 
of which has distinct characteristics. If a | Hyde County Swamp, has an area of about 
traveler should start 
at the mouth of any 
river in eastern North 
Carolina and row 
upstream about 150 
miles he would reach 
the head of naviga- 
tion ; that is, the place *~ 
where the bed of the 
river is rocky and the 
water falls over in 
such a manner as to 

hinder or prevent fur- Fig. 5. A physical map of North Carolina. 




THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



300 square miles and 
lies partly in five coun- 
ties. Other swamps 
are the Dover, Hell' 
Shelter, Angola Ba) , 
Green, and a part of 
the Dismal Swamp. 
The greater part of 
Dismal Swamp lies in 
Virginia. Usually the 
water in these swamps 
is very shallow. In 
some places it disap- 
pears for a large part of the year. Here are 
found abundant game and much of the 
valuable timber of the state. An effort is 
now being made to drain these swamps. 
The soil of much of the land thus reclaimed 
is rich and almost inexhaustible. 

If the traveler should go on foot due west 
from the Fall Line, he would notice that the 
surface becomes hilly and broken. Waterfalls 
are more frequent. The streams flow more 
swiftly and through deeper channels. The 
hills, at first standing but little above the 
general plain, gradu- 
ally rise higher and 
higher and the slopes 
become steeper until 
the Blue Ridge Moun- 
tains are reached, when 
the elevations become 
suddenly very great. 
This rugged section 
extending between the 
Fall Line and the 
Blue Ridge Mountains 
is called the Piedmont 
Region of the state. 
(Comp.Geog., Fig. 1 89. ) 
It is about 125 miles 
in width and has an 
average elevation 
above the sea of about 
900 feet. Its area is 




View of Grandfather Mountain. Out of the 
wooded slopes of the Blue Ridge rises 
this picturesque peak. 



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Copr'ifbt, 1910. b7 the EcjBton 

Fig. 7. Round Knob Valley from the top of Mount 

St. Bernard. Notice the road curving in and out 

among the forested ridges on its way to the 

summit of the Blue Ridge. 



about 21,000 square 
miles. (Fig. 5.) 

Still farther west 
are the Blue Ridge 
Mountains (3,000 ft.), 
'vhich form the eastern 
margin of a high moun- 
tain plateau. (Fig. 7.) 
The streams no longer 
flow toward the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, but west- 
ward. This section 
includes many moun- 
tain ridges and peaks ; some of the ridges run 
parallel to the main ranges and some cross- 
wise. This is the Mountain Section, the third 
division of the state. (Comp. Geog., Fig. 189.) 
It extends across the state, varying in width 
from thirty-five to sixty-five miles. Its area 
is about 6,000 square miles, the average ele- 
vation being from 2,000 to 5,000 feet. 

Mountains. The great Appalachian High- 
land which extends from the St. Lawrence 
River to central Alabama has its highest 
peaks in North Carolina. (Part IV, Table, 
p. 32, and Comp.Geog., 
Fig. 121.) Within the 
state there are two 
main mountain chains 
which run almost par- 
allel, the Blue Ridge 
and the Great Smoky. 
(Figs. 2 and 3.) 

The Blue Ridge, the 
eastern chain of the 
Appalachian Moun- 
tains, owes its name 
to its color when seen 
from a distance. It is 
the great watershed of 
the state. Grandfather 
Mountain (5,964 ft.) is 
the highest elevation. 
(Fig. 6.) The Great 
Smoky Range forms 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



the boundary line between 
North Carolina and Tennessee, 
except at the extreme south- 
west comer of the state. It 
consists of several chains, chief 
of which are the Iron Moun- 
tains in the north and the 
Unaka Mountains in the south. 
Its highest peak is Clingmans 
Dome, 6,619 fset above sea 
level. 

Between these two ranges 
are many cross chains and 
high peaks. The Black Moun- 
tains, the highest of these 
ranges, contain Mount Mitch- 
ell (6,711 ft.), the highest 
mountain east of the Rockies. 
(Comp. Geog.,Fig. 121.) Next 
in importance of these cross 
chains are the Balsam Mountains, which 
extend from South Carolina on the south to 
the Smoky Mountains on the Tennessee line. 

Drainage. The rainfall in the state is large. 
In finding its way to the sea this water 
is governed by the topography of the state. 
The Blue Ridge Mountains form the great 
divide and the main watershed. The 
waters of the streams flowing eastward all 
find their way to the 
Atlantic Ocean. The 
westward flowing 
streams reach the Gulf 
of Mexico through the 
Tennessee or Ohio 
River and the Mis- 
sissippi. (Fig. 3.) 

The rivers flowing 
eastward move rapidly 
through the Piedmont 
section, and as they 
run down the foothills 
of the mountains 
(Fig. 8), and break 
through the rolling 




Fig. 8. Lower Falls of White Water. 

The descent oj this stream is a 

continuous series oj 

falls and rapids. 




country that stretches from 
the mountains to the Fall 
Line, they afford much water 
power. After passing the Fall 
Line the streams widen out, 
become less rapid, and are 
navigable. 

The rivers west of the Blue 
Ridge may be grouped in two 
general divisions, those which 
reach the Mississippi by way 
of the Kanawha and the Ohio 
and those which' find the Mis- 
sissippi through the Tennes- 
see River. The New and its 
tributaries form the first divi- 
sion. The New River flows 
northward into the Kanawha, 
draining wholly or in part the 
northwestern counties — Ashe, 
Alleghany, and Watauga. By far the greater 
drainage, however, is through the Tennessee. 
All other counties west of the Blue Ridge 
are drained through that river. The princi- 
pal streams flowing directly or indirectly into 
the Tennessee are the Watauga, Toe, French 
Broad (Fig. 9), Big Pigeon, Tuckasegee, Little 
Tennessee, and the Nantahala. There are 
many falls in these streams which afford 
much water power. 
This power when used 
is chiefly employed in 
turning the wheels of 
many gristmills and 
sawmills. 

The principal rivers 
east and south of the 
Blue Ridge are the 
Chowan, Dan, Roan- 
oke, Tar, Neuse, Cape 
Fear,Yadkin,Catawba, 
and the Broad. The 
Chowan, Roanoke, Tar, 
Neuse, and Cape Fear 
are all navigable for 



Oopyrl^h 

I. Scene on the French Broad. Here the picluresque 
wannanoa winding down adds its waters to the 
beautiful, far-famed French Broad. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



many miles, but between 
the Fall Line and the 
mountains the rivers 
afford a large amount of 
water power, which is 
doubtless of more value 
to-day than the navigable 
portions of the streams. 

The counties near the 
coast are dotted with 
small fresh-water lakes. 
The largest of these lakes, 
Mattamuskeet, in Hyde 
Coimty, is about fifteen 
miles long and five to 
seven miles broad. Lake 
Phelps, Alligator Lake, and 
Pungo Lake all lie in the 
great swamp between 
Albemarle and Pamlico 
soimds. In White Oak 
Jones, Craven, and Carteret counties, is a 
group of small lakes. The largest. North- 
west Lake, has an area of about ten square 
miles. Green Swamp in Columbus County 
contains Waccamaw Lake, eight miles long 
and five miles broad. In the Mountain sec- 
tion are many beautiful land-locked lakes. 
Three of the largest and most famous of 
these lakes are Toxaway, Fairfield (Fig. i), 
and Sapphire, lying 
high up among the 
head streams of the 
Toxaway River. 

Water Power. The 
force of water running 
rapidly and in great 
volume down a steep 
bed furnishes much 
power which may be 
used in turning the 
wheels of great facto- 
ries. Practically every 
county in the state has 
at least one small mill 




Fig. io. Cascades near head of Catawba River 

Swamp, within 




D. 8. Geolof I 

Fig. II. The "Narrows of the Yadkin." At this point, 

where the waters flow through a narrow and 

picturesque gorge, the river affords 

much water power. 



run by water power. 
(Fig. 50.) Sometimes it 
gins cotton, sometimes 
grinds corn or saws lumber. 
Wherever the falls of 
the rivers afford power 
sufficient to turn the 
wheels, great factories are 
being built. This is true 
of the Dan at Spray and 
Mayodan, of the Roanoke 
at Weldon, of the Tar at 
Rocky Mount and Louis- 
burg. There is abundant 
power on the Cape Fear 
at Averasboro and Buck- 
horn. In the basin of the 
Cape Fear the Haw and 
its tributaries in Alamance 
County, and the Deep and 
its tributaries in Randolph County, afford 
abundant power largely utilized in manufac- 
turing. 

Bluitts Falls and Grassy Island Falls in 
Richmond County and the "Narrows of the 
Yadkin" in Stanly County are the chief 
sources of power on the Yadkin. (Fig. 11.) 
While the "Narrows" aiTord the greatest 
power much exists between that point and 
Patterson, where the Yadkin leaves the 
Blue Ridge. 

The Catawba and its 
tributaries (Fig. 10) 
from the South Caro- 
lina line near Charlotte 
to the Blue Ridge, and 
the Broad and Toxa- 
way rivers (Fig. 8) 
and their tributaries 
have much water 
power, a large part of 
which is undeveloped. 
While water power 
has been used in North 
Carolina since colonial 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




Fig. 12. A sub-station on the Biickhorn-Fayettevillc 
transmission line. 

days, only within recent years has it been 
employed to produce electric 
power that can be transmit- 
ted over long distances as is 
now done in the Piedmont. 
With the water power on the 
Catawba and the Broad rivers 
electric power is now pro- 
duced and transmitted as far 
east as Durham and as far 
west as Shelby and Hickory. 
This electric power is used 
in lighting cities, turning the 
machinery of many busy cot- 
ton mills and other thriving 
manufactories, and in driving 
street cars. (Fig. 12.) An interurban rail- 
way now under construction from Greenville, 
S. C, to Durham, N. C, will be run by electric 
power. 

Coast Line. While the coast line proper 
of North CaroHna is only about 300 miles 
long, if the sounds, estuaries, and other 
indentations are considered the state has a 
shore line of nearly 1,500 miles. 

The coast is bordered for nearly 300 miles 
by a succession of long, narrow islands and 
peninsulas, called sand banks. They are com- 
posed largely of fine white sand tossed up by 
the winds into hills called sand dunes, which 
are often more than one hundred feet high. 
(Fig. 14, and Comp. Geog., Fig. 78.) These 




Fig. 13. Sir Walter Rale ich Fi m 

tlie original 0} Zucchero m the col 

lection of the Marquis of Bath 



sand banks prevent all of the rivers except 
the Cape Fear from emptying into the ocean. 
In many places they are covered with ever- 
greens or dense forests, with here and there 
a tiny lake shut in from the sea. Occasionally 
there are extensive areas of marshy land 
covered with vegetation, which form a 
natural pasture land and breeding place for 
wild animals. Between these narrow sand 
banks are constantly changing inlets through 
which small vessels reach the mainland. 
There are few good harbors on the coast. 
These fringing sand banks form three 
capes: Hatteras, Lookout, and Fear. (Fig. 2.) 
Cape Hatteras, the most 
widely known of the three, is 
the most dreaded cape on the 
Atlantic coast. It extends 
more than a mile into the 
ocean, beyond which point in- 
visible reefs and bars stretch 
out twelve to fifteen miles. 
These form the widely known 
"Diamond Shoals," which 
sailors go far out to sea to 
avoid. Here the sea is so rough 
that it has been impossible 
to erect a lighthouse, and 
here many vessels have been 
wrecked and hundreds of lives have been lost. 
Between the banks and the mainland are 




r Cobb 

Fig. I t- •'1 I'lciv nj the sand dunes. These are a tnarked 
feature of the North Carolina coast and are con- 
stantly changing in shape and size. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




.1 map shozLitiig the iiUJii aniiiul temperature of North Carolina 



from iSS=; to igio 

a number of sounds, the largest being Curri- 
tuck, Albemarle, Croatan, Roanoke, Pamlico, 
Core, and Bogue. (Fig. 2.) 

With the exception of Long Island, Pam- 
lico is the largest sound on the Atlantic 
coast. It is also one of the greatest fishing 
resorts on that coast. Albemarle Sound, 
second in size, is the largest coastal body of 
fresh water in the world. Currituck Sound 
is narrow and very shallow, and forms one 
of the most notable hunting grounds along 
the Atlantic. It is visited annually by a 
great number and variety of wild fowl. 
Croatan Sound, which is separated from 
Roanoke Sound by Roanoke Island, is the 
highway for vessels plying the inland waters. 

The most important island on the coast of 
North Carolina is Roanoke (Fig. 2), about 
twelve miles long and three miles wide. 
Here, nearly one 
hundred years after 
Columbus discovered 
America, Sir Walter 
Raleigh (Fig. 13) 
made three different 
attempts to plant an 
English colony. And 
it was here Virginia 
Dare was bom, and 
where the few people 
who were left to main- 
tain the settlement 



were lost. The out- 
lines of the old fort 
may be seen to-day. 
The largest town is 
Manteo, the county 
seat of Dare County. 
Cedar Island , 
second in size, is a 
great fishing resort. 
It lies in the southern 
end of Pamlico Sound. 
Smith Island, at the 
mouth of the Cape 



Fear River, was once a part of the mainland, 
but a great storm (1776) cut a new inlet, 
separating the island from the mainland. 

Climate. The climate of North Carolina 
is determined by its location in the warm 
Temperate Belt (Comp. Geog., Fig. 74), but is 
modified by three important features, — the 
ocean on the east, the fact that it lies out- 
side the usual path of cyclonic storms, and 
the gradual elevation of the land toward the 
west. 

In the Coastal region, owing to the prox- 
imity of the ocean and the indentation of 
the land by large bays and sounds, the 
temperature is mild and even. (Fig. 15.) 
In the Piedmont section the extremes 
between summer and winter become greater. 
In the Mountain section the influence of ele- 
vation is very great. At Linville (3,800 ft.) 




Fig. 16. 



A map showing the mean annual rainfall of North Carolina 
irom iSS^ to igio. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



the temperature is about the same as that 
of Boston or Chicago. 

The mean annual temperature of North 
Carolina is fifty-nine degrees. July is the 
warmest month and January the coldest. 
The extremes in temperature between the 
Mountain region and the Coastal region are 
marked. (Fig. 15.) At Hatteras, on the 
coast, the earliest date for the opening of 
spring is the twenty-eighth of February; 
while at Blowing Rock (Fig. 2), in the 
highest section of the Blue Ridge, spring 
is delayed to May tenth. However, in 
the larger portion 
of North CaroHna 
spring arrives in 
April. 

The greatest 
rainfall is in 
July and 
August ; the 
least in Oc- 
tober and 
November. 
(Figs. 16 
and 17.) 



Average 



Average 




From U. 8. 0«oIokIc( 

Fig. 1 8. A scene in the lowlands of the Catawba River. 

Here the soil has been washed away and while 

sand spread over the surface. 

As North Carolina lies far from the usual 
path of cyclonic storms, it is rarely visited 
by severe storms. 

The Mountain section of the state is 
famous for its beautiful scenery, fine climate, 
and healthful water. Many people from the 
East and other sections of the country come 
here to spend the summer months. (Fig. i.) 

Soils. The soils of North Carolina consti- 
tute her greatest source of wealth. Every 
variety of soil is to be found. Only in 
limited areas is the soil lacking in fertility, 



Az'erage 



lllllllllllllll Itllllllllllllll Ittlllllllll 

Rock House Raleigh Louisburg 

Fig. 17. The average annual rainfall at Rock House, Raleigh, and Louisburg, from i8q; to igio. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



and nowhere within the state may it be said 
to be unproductive. 

The Coastal Plain has the greatest variety 
of soils. The swamp regions, when drained, 
are a rich black, silty, and in the main loamy 
soil, seemingly inexhaustible in fertility. A 
large part of this region has been considered 
worthless, since it seemed impossible to 
drain it. But the results from reclaiming 
Mattamuskeet Lake have shown that it is 
possible to drain and reclaim for agricul- 
ture large areas of this 
swamp land. Other 
soils of this region are 
the gray, sand, yellow 
and red clay, and 
gravelly sand loams, 
with some red clay in 
the western portion. 
The loamy soils all 
combine well with 
humus or decayed 
vegetable matter, and 
when properly treated 
retain the amount of 
moisture needed, and 
are very productive. 
Along the rivers of the 
Coastal Plain there is 
much alluvial land. 
(Comp. Geog., p. 30.) 
In several of the coun- 
ties of this section the 
underlying beds of 
marls afford excellent 
fertilizing materials. 
In a few counties the 
soil consists of deep beds of almost white sand. 
This has been considered less productive than 
the other soils of the state. But it is splen- 
didly adapted to the growing of grapes, small 
fruits, and melons, and under proper treat- 
ment all farm crops yield abundantly. 

The rolling uplands of the Piedmont 
Region constitute the greatest proportion 




Fig. 



of the cultivable area of that section. The 
rocks are deeply decayed, forming in many 
places highly fertile loam soils. The soils of 
these uplands are in the main heavy red, 
yellow sandy, and mica red clays, and sandy 
clay and gravelly loams. 

While the alluvial soils of the bottom 
lands are limited in extent, they are usually 
far more fertile than the upland soils. The 
alluvium or detritus is formed by sediments 
that are carried from the hillsides. (Comp 
Geog., p. 24.) Where 
the hillsides are for 
ested, the washing or 
erosion is slight, being 
hindered by the forest 
vegetation. Where the 
hillsides have been 
cleared erosion is much 
more rapid. (Fig. 19.) 
The coarser, heavier 
material washed from 
the slopes is deposited 
in the valleys, while 
the finer, fertile mate- 
rial is swept on into the 
streams. Thus both 
hillside and valley are 
injured. (Fig. 18.) 

Nature endowed this 
section richly and pro- 
vided lavishly for its 
upbuilding. Here the 
rainfall is abundant 
and the growing season 
is long. The soils are 
warm and early, easily 
crumbled, and readily cultivated. These 
characteristics give the soils their highest 
values. But under certain conditions they 
cause this section to wash more readily than 
any other east of the Rocky Mountains. 

It is said that annually more than 850 
pounds of soil are washed from every acre of 
land along the Yadkin above Salisbury, and 



19. Land erosion near Marion. Notice how the 
soil is worn away where the forest cover 
has been destroyed. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




From n. S. Ooologioal Bur 

Forests on the slopes of the Blue Ridge. 



Forests. In the 

bottom lands of the 
Coastal Plain are found 
water, Spanish, swamp, 
and white oaks and the 
elm. Where the soil is 
wet a large part of the 
year the sweet and the 
black gum attain great 
size; where the land 
is usually flooded, the 
cypress predominates. 



150 pounds of plant 
food in solution. More 
than 380 pounds of soil 
are washed from every 
acre along the Neuse 
above Selma, more 
than fifty pounds being 
vegetable matter that 
must be replaced. At 
the same time more 
than one hundred 
pounds per acre of 

plant food in solution are washed out. In an 
area of about 12,000,000 acres in the Pied- 
mont, more than 4,000,000 tons of material 
are annually washed away, the value of the 
plant food exceeding $2,000,000. 

By controlling the rainfall so that the 
water goes off the land no more rapidly 
than Nature intended that it should, a large 
part of this waste can be prevented. 

In the Mountain section, as in the Pied- 
mont, the rocks are decayed to a great 
depth, and in most places there is a deep 
loamy soil to the summits of the ridges. 
The soils are sandy and gravelly loam or 
are composed largely of red clay. They are 
highly fertile and yield abundant and varied 
crops. There are many fertile valleys with 
deep alluvial soils. 
While erosion is less 
rapid than in the Pied- 
mont, the steep moun- 
tain sides are easily 
stripped of soil when 
the trees are cut away 
and nothing is done to 
prevent- too rapid 
Streamwork. (Fig. 19.) 
Only intelligent care 
of the forests, and ter- 
racing the cultivated 
land, are needed to 
protect these fertile 

, J 11 Fig. 21. Hauling logs to amountain sawmill. Because of , _ ^ i 

Slopes and valleys. the distance to railroads, only the choicest timber is cut. spruce and fir. In the 




(Fig. 4.) On peaty or sandy soils, with a 
marl subsoil, the cedar and the juniper grow. 
The famous long-leaf pine, the live oak with 
wide-spreading, moss-festooned limbs, the 
magnolia and the palmetto, the hickory, ash, 
maple, and holly are also found. Here, too, 
are the scuppernong grape, the strawberry, and 
the huckleberry. 

On the uplands of the Piedmont are oaks, 
hickory, and dogwood, intermixed with short- 
leaf pine. In Orange, Granville, Person, and 
Alamance counties there is a belt of hard- 
woods. From Greensboro to Charlotte and in 
parts of Lincoln and Catawba counties extend 
belts of oaks and hickories. In the southern 
part of Union County and in parts of Durham 
County there is much more pine than oak. 
The forests of the 
Mountain region are 
largely hardwoods. 
Here the yellow pop- 
lar, the chestnut, and 
the red, chestnut, and 
white oaks attain large 
size. On the higher 
elevations are lindens, 
birches, hard and soft 
maples, beech, ash, and 
wild cherry. On the 
cold north slopes are 
found hemlock forests, 
and, at high elevations, 



THE GEOGRAPH\ OF NORTH CAROLINA 



13 



river valleys the white pine grows ; south of 
the French Broad is the yellow pine. 

North Carolina has 153 kinds of trees, fifty- 
seven of which are of great economic value. 
Of these trees fourteen attain a height of more 
than one hundred feet, three of more than 
140 feet ; sixteen reach a diameter of five feet, 
and seven a diameter of seven feet. Here 
are found twenty-four oaks, and eight of the 
nine hickories that grow in the United States. 
Here are the six maples of the eastern United 
States, all the lindens and magnolias, three 
of the birches, eight pines out of eleven, both 
species of hemlock and balsam fir, three elms 
out of five, and several species of plum, 
cherr\% and apple. 

In the eastern and southeastern parts of 
the state are the palmetto, prickly ash, 
American olive, mock orange, and live oak. 
The mountains of the west are the southern 
limit of the black spruce, striped and spiked 
maples, mountain sumac, balsam fir, and 
aspen. 

A few trees found only in this state and its 
immediate vicinity are the yellow wood, the 
large-leaf umbrella, and the clammy locust. 

The forests in many sections of the state 
abound in medicinal roots and herbs. In 
some places, as at Henderson, Statesville, 
and Asheville, the gathering and shipping of 
these medicinal plants is a profitable industry. 

Originally, from seashore to mountains, 
North CaroHna was almost entirely forest 
clad. These forests, one of the state's chief 
sources of wealth, have been handled with 
little economy. They yielded fuel, building 
material, and turpentine. 

But the farmer, in clearing the land, cut 
down and burned timber worth millions of 
dollars. The lumberman destroyed and still 
destroys the j^oung trees, giving no thought 
to their future value. The turpentine oper- 
ator so cut the trees that they were soon 
exhausted; then, covered with resinous oil, 
they fell an easy prey to forest fires. At 



the same time these fires destroj^ed the 
young growth and prevented natural reseed- 
ing. Thus these magnificent resources have 
been wasted. Yet nearly two-thirds of the 
area of North Carolina is still covered with 
forests, and with the efforts now being made 
to conserve them, they may be made a per- 
manent source of wealth. (Fig. 20.) 

Game. The shores of North Carolina form 
the greatest resort for game and fish on the 
Atlantic coast. Millions of wild fowl stop 
here on their way between the North and the 
South. Water fowl and shore birds abound 
in greater numbers than elsewhere on the 
continent. Canvasback, red-head, mallard, 
and black duck, wild geese and brant, the 
snow goose and pintail, are all found. Until 
recently the yearly slaughter of these birds 
by millinery feather hunters and sportsmen 
has been tremendous. In Currituck County 
it is said the native gunners in one season 
received about $150,000 for ducks and geese 
shipped to northern markets. 

As no attempt was made to protect the 
birds, they were killed all the year around, and 
now some of the more valuable species are 
practically extinct. Even the quail was at one 
time in danger of extennination. In 1903 the 
state incorporated the Audubon Society, which 
is responsible for the protection of the birds. 

Among the forests, meadows, and swamps 
of the Coastal Plain the bear, the fox, other 
fur-bearing animals, and the deer now make 
their homes. 

Fish and Fisheries. The sounds in eastern 
North Carolina are either the home or the 
stopping place of an unusually large variety 
of food fishes. The low, sandy islands, the 
peninsulas, and the many sounds and inlets 
of the long, curving coast make an ideal 
fishing ground. The principal fish are the 
shad, the herring, the bass, the menhaden 
(valuable as a fertilizer and becatise of the 
oil it yields) , the bluefish, Spanish mackerel, 
mullet, trout, and sheepshead. 



14 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




Fig. 2j. LaiiiJiiii; jiili at Avoca hcach. llie "catch," 
shad and herring, to he sent to iVorlhern tnarkets. 

The principal fisheries are near the junc- 
tion of the Roanoke and Chowan rivers at 
the head of Albemarle Sound (Fig. 22), 
and at the meeting of the Neuse and Trent 
rivers. Morehead City on Bogue Sound is 
one of the most important fish markets in 
the country. 

In herring fisheries the state ranks first ; in 
shad, second. At Edenton the government 
maintains a fish hatchery for the purpose of 
stocking the rivers and sounds with shad and 
other fish. At Beaufort the government has 
a fine laboratory for the study of animal life 
in the sounds and ocean. 

Rocks and Minerals. Within the Coastal 
Plain, along the high, steep bluffs of river 
courses, the surface is everywhere under- 
laid by gravel, sands, and clays. (Fig. 23.) 
Along the western border of this region are 
occasional outcrops 
of granite and slates. 
(Fig. 23.) In a num- 
ber of eastern and 
southeastern coun- 
ties limited beds of 
limestone occur. 
Phosphate pebbles 
have been found in 
the southern coun- 
ties of Brunswick, 
Duplin, Pender, New 
Hanover, and Onslow. Fig. 23. 



In the Piedmont region there are two 
narrow belts of red sandstone. (Fig. 23.) 
The eastern belt contains coal deposits, and 
red, gray, and brown sandstone suitable for 
building purposes. 

The older crystalline rocks extend across 
the state in a northeast and southwest 
course. Of these the great slate belt is 
forty miles wide. The rocks, folded, broken, 
and tilted, frequently contain veins of gold- 
bearing ores. West of the slate belt is a 
band of rocks from ten to twenty miles wide. 
These rocks are veined with copper, iron, and 
gold-carrying ores. West of this region, and 
extending to the Blue Ridge ^fountains, is an 
area of crystalline rocks, with here and there 
belts of slate. Quartz veins among the rocks 
occasionally contain gold-bearing ores. 

Over a large part of the ilountain region 
are the older crystalline rocks (Fig. 23). 
These rocks, greatly folded and turned on 
their edges, contain iron, gold, and silver 
ores. Along the ranges of the Smoky and 
Blue Ridge mountains are narrower belts 
of rock of a much younger period. 

While North Carolina has a large variety 
of minerals, they do not occur in sufficient 
quantities to make mining a profitable 
industry as compared with states like Penn- 
sylvania and Alabama. 

Gold is found chiefly in Cabarrus. Catawba, 
Guilford, Stanly, and Union counties and 




' Coaatal Plain foi 



rta Triaagic. Sandstone Gynnitf^ and gn, 

A geologic map of North Carolina. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



IS 




of granite quarry near Salisbury, 
Rowan County. 

silver in Rowan County. The largest gold- 
producing mine is in Montgomery County. 
The largest deposits of copper are found in 
Rowan County, but copper also exists in 
Stanly, Cabarrus, Jackson, Ashe, and Person 
counties. While the most widely known iron 
mine is at Cranberr}^ ^litchell County, there 
are iron deposits in Jackson, Chatham, 
Cherokee, and Ashe coimties. 

North Carolina leads the Union in the 
production of mica. It is found chiefly in 
Mitchell, Yancey, Macon, Haywood, Moore, 
and Stokes counties. It is made into sheets 
for stoves and is used in making electrical 
apparatus, fireproof materials, lubricating 
materials, and for packing steam pipes and 
boilers. The best product of the mines 
is used in making 
certain kinds of paper 
and paints. 

Talc of the finest 
quality is produced, 
principally in Swain 
County. It is used 
in making tailors' 
pencils and dustless 
crayon for the school- 
room, and is also 
groimd and sold as 
talcimi powder. The 



valuable monazite deposits in the central 
western part of the state form the source 
of supply for the entire country. 

Tin is found in Gaston County ; millstones 
in Rowan County ; graphite in Wake County ; 
coal in Chatham and Moore counties. Gran- 
ite is quarried in Rowan and Surry counties 



JS">- 
igoo.. 
iSgo.. 
iSSo.. 
iSto.. 
iSbo.. 
rSjo.. 
rS^.. 
jSjo.. 
iSso.. 
iSio. . 
iSoc.. 
jjqo.. 



lO 13 14 10 IS so 22 24 






.'i,4 



Fig. 26. The population of 

North Carolina in hundreds 

of thousands and the density 

per square mile at each 

federal census. 

(Fig. 24), the chief center of the industry 
being Mount Airy. Excellent clay suitable 
for the making of brick and tiling is found 
in more than half of the counties of the state. 

//. HISTORY OF THE ST.4TE 

The Indians. For hundreds of years the 
Indians were the only inhabitants of the 
land now known as North Carolina. They 
roamed from place to place, living in wig- 
wams, plying their log canoes along the rivers 
and among the sounds. The men hunted 




Fig. 25. 



A map showing early explorations and settlements, and the part played 
by North Carolina in the Revolutionary War. 



i6 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



and fished, while the women 
scratched the soil here and 
there with a crooked stick 
and raised a Httle corn, a few 
potatoes, and a small quan- 
tity of tobacco. But the vast 
resources Nature had lavished 
upon the region remained un- 
developed until the coming 
of the white man. 

While the settlers in the 
Piedmont region gradually 
pushed the Indians to the 
Mountain region, the settlers 
in the east followed the rivers 
to the Fall Line, driving the 
Indians farther westward. In 
a few years the whole country 




Fig. 27. Daniel Boone. From a por- 
trait made in iSig, fiow in pos- 
session of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. 



Drummond of Virginia Gov- 
ernor. In 1728 the King of 
England bought the lands of 
seven of the Lords Proprie- 
tors, and the next year North 
Carolina was separated from 
South Carolina. (Fig. 25.) 

The earliest settlements in 
North Carolina were made 
along the Chowan, Roanoke, 
and Pamlico rivers. The Swiss 
settled at the junction of the 
Neuse and Trent rivers, and 
later settlers from South Caro- 
lina located on the lower Cape 
Fear. These colonists did not 
settle in groups, but spread 
all along the rivers. It was 



was taken from the Indians except a small 
area in Jackson and Swain counties, where 
a small tribe of Indians still lives. (Fig. 2.) 

Settlement and Early History. This region 
early attracted the English, who made three 
unsuccessful attempts to plant a colony on 
this coast before the first English settlement 
(1607) was made in Virginia. About fifty 
years later some Virginians explored this 
"Summer Land" along the Albemarle Sound. 
Its fame spread through neighboring colonies 
and drew a number of 
settlers to the region. 
The first settlement, it 
is believed, was on Per- 
quimans River and was 
later called the "New 
Plantation." (Fig. 25.) 

In 1663 the King of 
England gave all the 
territory between Vir- 
ginia and Florida to 
eight of his favorites. 
These Lords Proprie- 
tors of Carolina, as 
they were called, 
appointed William 




Fig. 28. The Capil.'l <;/ Raleigh. The building has 
noteworthy situation, and the surrounding grounds 
are janied for their'wealth of fine old trees. 



almost fifty-five years after the first settle- 
ments were made before Bath, the first town, 
was incorporated. The early settlers were 
all agriculturists. The governors lived on 
farms, and the courts and general assembly 
met around at different plantations. 

As the settlem.ents grew in number they 
extended farther and farther up the river 
until they reached the Fall Line. The soi? 
was fertile and the forests were rich in food 
for cattle and hogs. Tobacco, wheat, corn, and 
potatoes were grown 
and great quantities 
of beef, pork, butter, 
and cheese produced. 
The long-leaf pine 
yielded tar, pitch, and 
turpentine, products 
that gave North Caro- 
lina the name "Tar 
Heel State." 

Soon a large trade 
was established with 
the West Indies and 
the mother country. 
This trade called for 
home markets, places 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



17 



where goods could be exchanged, bought, 
or sold ; and thus towns sprang up along the 
rivers. Bath on the Pamlico (1705); then 
Newbern on the Xeuse (1710) ; and Edenton 



Total foreign hor-. 

Gtrmany 

England 

Cattada 

Ireland 

Scotland 

Italy. ..r. 

All other caunir! 



b'o go too 



J 1 L 



Fig. 29. Proportion of joreign- 

born population of each leading 

nationality in North Carolina. 

twelfth census. 



on the Chowan (1710). Later (1725), Bruns- 
wick on Cape Fear was laid out, and Xewton, 
now Wilmington (1733), was begun. As 
settlements pushed farther and farther up the 
rivers other towns were laid out, and thus 
Halifax, Tarboro, Kinston, and Fayetteville 
were established as distributing points for 
the western portion of the Coastal Plain. 

Across the middle of the Piedmont section 
stretches the great highway between the 
North and the South. Immigrants coming 
up the rivers of South Carolina often pushed 
up the valleys between the Yadkin and the 
Catawba rivers. They knew practically noth- 
ing about the settlers on the east coast. 

A few years after the first settlements in 
the Piedmont section (about 1740) immigrants 
began to arrive from Pennsylvania. Some 
were Irish, others English Quakers, many 



Tolat population 
Native to slate... 
South Carolina.. 

Virginia 

Tennessee. 

Atlotlicr statei.. 



40 50 bo -JO So qo 



Fig. 30. State of birth of the native- 
born po pulation of North Carolina, 
twelfth census. 



were Germans. They followed the foothills 
of the Blue Ridge and settled along the Dan 
and the upper waters of the Yadkin. Among 
these settlers was Sqmre Boone, the father 



of Daniel Boone, who crossed the Blue 
Ridge, discovered the beautiful Watauga 
country, and blazed a way for settlers. 
(Fig. 27.) In 1753 the Moravians settled and 
built the town of Salem. (Figs. 29 and 30.) 
From 1729 to 1776 North Carolina was 
a colony of England, her governors were 
appointed by the King, and her laws had to 
be approved by the King. North Carolina, 
and the other colonies, declared their indepen- 
dence of England. The Revolutionary War 
was fought and the colonies were separated 
from the mother country. Two important 
battles of the Revolution were fought on 
North Carolina soil, Moore's Creek Bridge 
and Guilford Courthouse. The battle of 
King's Mountain was fought, chiefly by North 
Carolinians, just over the line in South 

per cent O /O 20 SO 4° S° t>? 7? * ')° '<>° 



All occupation: 

Agriculture. . . 

Domestic and 

personal Sismi^t^ , 

Manufactures^ ^^^^^ j FiG. 31. Proportion of persons 
""fiortaHoli" ' engaged in each class of occu- 

_._j,...j. ^ 1 potions in North Carolina, 

Professional service. .'m I twelfth CBUSUS. 

Carolina, to keep the British from entering 
the state. This battle, with that of Guilford 
Courthouse, turned the tide of war, and in a 
short time the British surrendered at York- 
town and the thirteen colonies were free. 

The first Governor of the state was Richard 
Caswell. In 1792 the capital was estab- 
lished in Wake County and called Raleigh, 
after Sir Walter Raleigh, who attempted to 
make the first English settlement in what is 
now North Carolina. 

///. OCCUP.ATIONS OF THE PEOPLE 

About four-fifths of the inhabitants of 
North Carolina are engaged in agriculture. 
The remainder of the people live in towns 
and cities and are chiefly engaged in trade 
and manufacturing. Among these two classes 
of people live the professional men who, in 
one wav or another, administer to the needs 



i8 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




t^ Lest thnn f;Mt/i>ei ^i„ii<-e ii'iU $500 to $1,000 pe, /^'iitate miU 

$1,000 to $i,500 per square mile ^_-_- ^ $2,500 per eqtiure mile and over 

Fig. 32. Map showing the value of farm products of North Carolina, 
twelfth census. 

of all the people. These are the minister, 
the teacher, the physician, and the lawyer. 
(Fig. 31.) 

Agriculture. The greatest by far of North 
Carolina's resources are her fine soil, climate, 
and water supply. These, and her geographic 
position between the regions of the sub-trop- 
ical plants of the South and the more hardy 
plants of the North, give the state unusual 
advantages for agriculture. Because of these 
conditions agriculture is the leading occupa- 
tion of the people. (Fig. 31.) 

It is safe to say that no other state in the 
Union is so well fitted by Nature to provide 
for herself as North Carolina. The soil and 
climate of the state are so varied that almost 
every Temperate-Belt crop may be culti- 
vated within her borders. The favoring 
conditions in the 
Coastal Plain make 
possible the growing 
of two or three crops 
a year on the same 
land. There, within 
twelve months, gar- 
den truck, grain, and 
hay may be harvested 
from one field. 

North Carolina con- 
tains a large area of 
cultivable land, which 



is divided into 255,- 
814 farms, having an 
average size of eighty- 
six acres. It is a state 
of small farms, with 
a growing tendency 
toward still smaller 
farms. While farm 
lands in some sec- 
tions are highly im- 
proved (Fig. 3 5), great 
improvements also 
have been made in 
agricultural methods, 
with a proportionate increase in the yield of 
products. Yet much remains to be done in 
developing farming. 

In 1900 North Carolina had 22,000,000 
acres of tillable land, twenty-six per cent 
of which was improved. (Fig. 32.) The 
average size of each farm was loi acres, while 
the value of her farm products the preceding 
year was less than $75,000,000. (Part IV, 
Table, p. 32.) In comparison, Pennsylvania 
had 18,000,000 acres of tillable land, sixty- 
eight per cent being improved. The average 
size of her farms was eighty-six acres, and her 
farm products had a value of about $208,000,- 
000. Thus we see that Pennsylvania, with a 
smaller ciiltivable area, produced crops worth 
almost three times as much as those produced 
in the state of North Carolina. 




Fig. 33. Map showing the production of cotton in 
North Carolina in iQlo. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



19 



North Carolina is an 
agricultural state, yet 
she spends millions of 
dollars annually for 
foodstuffs that might 
be produced at home. 
In 1909 North CaroHna 
bought from other 
states 80,500 tons of 
mill foods, worth more 
than$i,368,ooo; meat, 
valued at nearly 
$6,900,000; more than 

220,000 tons of hay, Fig. 34. A cotton , 

valued at $3,221,875; nearly 250,000 pounds 
of butter, valued at about $50,000; 565,164 
barrels of flour, worth about $4,000,000; and 
205,828 bushels of wheat, valued at $237,000. 
All these things could easily have been 
produced in North Carolina and this amount 
of money kept at home. 

Progress in Farming. Between 1900 and 
1 910 the increase in improved farm lands 
was forty per cent. With the educational 
work now being carried on by the national 
and state Departments of Agriculture, and 
the coming of the farm-life school, the 
gain will be far more rapid. 

The work of the Corn Clubs in North 
Carohna is a fine demonstration of the 
remarkable possibihties of North Carolina 
soils as well as of the benefits growing out 




of agricultural educa- 
tion. The plan of these 
clubs is for each boy 
to plant and cultivate 
one acre of com ac- 
cording to the method 
outlined in bulletins 
sent out by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 
He must keep account 
of all expenses, the 
amount of fertilizers 
used, and the methods 
field II! Ill . I . ,:,ity. of cultivation. Prizes 

are gi\en fur the greatest yield, for the best- 
kept accounts, and the best statements of 
work. In 1909 one thousand boys in North 
Carolina were enrolled in these clubs. Their 
average yield of corn was sixty bushels 
per acre. In comparison, the average yield 
in the state was eighteen and a half bushels 
per acre. However, one farmer raised 226 
bushels on one acre. Clubs organized to 
grow other farm products show the same 
astonishing results. 

The value of all farm products for the year 
1910 exceeded $120,000,000, an increase of 
more than $47,000,000 in ten years. (Fig. 
32.) The principal crops are cotton, com, 
tobacco, oats, wheat, hay, jjotatoes, peanuts, 
garden vegetables, rice, orchard and small 
fruits, and bulbs. (Figs. ^^, 36 and39.) 



T"-" '• .: 




^ 








Hi 


y^ftlwl^l 


S^ 


&r 'Sfl^K JIk 




k- 


, " ■ 


- ^'^WS;," B^r 






--^M 


r'l 






^JjE 


1 II II u 111*^ 




--:^^ 



Fig. 35. A typical farm scene tr the Piedinont. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 





Fig. 36. The yield of corn in North Carolina 

In 1910 North Carolina had 1,359,000 
acres planted in cotton; the yield was 
675,00c bales, an average of 240 pounds of 
lint cotton to the acre. 
This is the greatest 
yield per acre of all 
the Southern states. 
Under skillful cultiva- 
tion and careful seed 
selection the soil will 
yield from 500 to 1,000 
pounds of lint cotton 
to the acre. ]\Iany 
farms in the state 

show an average yield Fig. 37. Com yielding more 
of one bale of cotton to an acre, while the 
yield per acre of one farm in Wake County 
was two and one-third bales. (Fig. 34.) Al- 
though cotton grows in almost all 
sections of North Carolina, in the 
northern counties it is not profitably 
grown very far west of the Fall Line ; 
in the southern section of the state 
it flourishes as far west as the Blue 
Ridge Mountains. (Fig. 33.) 

Under careful cultivation the rich 
soil of North CaroHna, from the 
coast to the Tennessee line, yields 
corn abundantly. (Fig. 36.) In 
1910 more than 3,070,000 acres were 
planted in corn; about 54,600,000 
bushels were raised, or an average of 



eighteen and three- 
fifths bushels to the 
acre. This is not 
enough corn for home 
needs, and thousands 
of bushels are im- 
ported annually. The 
state should not only 
produce corn suffi- 
cient for her own 
needs, but have much 
i.w(.„.7,w»i,.,.^,„„v„„;«»„d<,„r to sell. (Fig. 37.) 

twelfth census. In 1910, 7,433,000 

bushels of wheat were harvested from 652,000 
acres of land, an average of eleven and one- 
half bushels to the acre. (Fig. 38.) It is 
said that it takes five 
and one-half bushels 
of wheat every year for 
each person in the 
United States. On this 
basis, if North Carolina 
is to supply her own 
needs, 12,000,000 
bushels will be required 
and the average per 
acre must be increased 
than 226 bushels per acre, from eleven and one- 
half to nineteen bushels. This would be 
enough wheat, provided the population 
remains what it is now. But the number of 




',S- Harvesting wheat in Wake County. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




iqog- 
iqoo. 



iSyo. 

iSbo. 



h-'-jT^^t than 1,000 ll>a. per .v^iuiiy mile ^^B 1,000 to 5,000 IOk. per square mile V//7/i^, 5,000 to 10,0<Xt /&a. jjer ; 
^^B 10,0tj0 Ihtt. per st/uare mije and oi^er • Less than I lb. per square mile 

Fig. 39. Tlie yield of tobacco in yorth Carolina, tweljlh census. 

inhabitants is increasing steadily (Fig. 26), 
and the yield of wheat must increase propor- 
tionately. In the same year 190,000 acres 
were devoted to oats, the yield being 3,458,- 
000 bushels, or an average of eighteen and 
one-fifth bushels per acre. It will be seen 
readily that the average yield of oats is 
much larger than that of wheat. While the 
Piedmont section is naturalty best adapted 
to the growing of grain, the best yield of 
oats is found in the Coastal Plain. 

Tobacco is raised throughout the Pied- 
mont and in some sections of the Coastal 
Plain. (Figs. 39 and 40.) With 
the close of the Civil War tobacco 
growing, which had been largely 
abandoned, increased rapidly. (Fig. 
41.) North Carolina now ranks 
second in the Union in production. 
In 1 910, 216,000 acres were planted 
to this crop, the yield being 129,000,- 
000 pounds, or nearly 600 pounds 
per acre. The estimated value of the 
crop was $13,737,600. 

North Carolina is the original 
home of the famous bright tobacco. 
The first crop of this tobacco was 
grown in 1852 on a sandy ridge in 
Caswell County. Its cultivation soon 
spread into other counties and also 
into Virginia. 



Soil and climatic 
conditions encourage 
the growth of grasses. 
In 1 910, 1 7 5,000 acres 
were devoted to this 
crop, the value of the 
262,000 tons of hay 
harvested being over 
$3,600,000, or S21.86 
per acre. (Fig. 42.) 
The extensive grow- 
ing of peanuts is con- 
fined largely to the 
northeastern counties 
of the state. North Carolina is second only 
to Virginia in production. The sweet potato 
flourishes ever\'where, but the greatest yield 



JO 40 ;p bo 



^ 



Fig. 41. The yield oj tobacco in 

.Xortli Carolina for six decaaes. 

and jor the year igog. in 

millions of pounds. 



is in the Coastal Plain. (Fig. 44.) North 
Carolina leads all the states in production. 




Fig. 40. .4 tobacco field in the Piedmont. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



MT^ 



Fig. 42. 



The growing of garden truck, 
and melons, which has developed 
within the last twenty years, is 
rapidly becoming a leading in- 
dustry. (Fig. 43.) The greatest 
trucking region is along the line s 
of the Atlantic Coast Line, tht- 
Norfolk & Southern, and thf 
Seaboard Air Line railroads. Ir 
the territory traversed by the>' 
roads, from Scotland County to 
Wilmington, are to be found 
some of the state's most highly 
developed farming lands. The 
soils of some of the mountain counties, how- 
ever, are well adapted to the growth of cer- 
tain trucking products. 
Here, with the coming 
of the railroad, afford- 
ing ready access to the 
markets, these coun- 
ties will become great 
trucking regions. 

The growing of bulbs 
for the flower trade, 
while largely confined 
to Duplin County, is 
one of the profitable 
industries of the state. 
Ideal conditions for 

their growth are found here, and this sec- 
tion produces better bulbs than are grown 



':^0!^^^ 



"^«*Mte: 



'•^mx 



«p-. 



Ipr * ^hf^^l^' 



^3HK1 



.i^: 



3»x. 














- 




^^ 


V 


^ 


mM 


a^ 


■p^ .'""ii-.^i^^^i^ 






i 




'.'■■■■■<-^^'- 




^r 




& 


im 


^ 




?■■ 


Wl^fM 


r. , ' J J, 




^ 


■.wk 


^1 


K^ 



Fig. 43. In the truck-farming district. Growing early 
beans for Northern markets. 




Leaa than 100 hunhel^ per sqiinre mile 100 tu I'OO l/iiaheh per squrne mile '^00 bii.-ht!.^ per ,sifuitre mi 

Fig. 44. The yield of sweet potatoes in North Carolina, twelfth census. 



A field of timothy and red clover which yielded 
three tons to the acre. 

elsewhere in the United States. Duplin 
County bulbs have long been recognized 
as the equal of any 
imported bulbs. 

In North Carolina 
both climate and soil 
invite the cultivation 
of fruits. (Fig. 45.) 
In their adaptability 
to the growing of 
apples some of the 
mountain climates are 
only excelled by those 
of the famous Oregon 
apple country. In 
time these regions bid 
fair to rival even Oregon as an apple country. 
The sandy soils of Moore, Richmond, Cumber- 
land, and other coun- 
ties are well adapted 
to the growing of 
peaches, and in some 
parts of this section 
large areas are being 
devoted to the culti- 
vation of this fruit. 
The growing of small 
fruits has already 
become a well- 
established industry. 
North Carolina 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



is the natural home 
of the grape. The 
famous scuppernong 
grape, while not well 
adapted to shipping, 
is one of the finest 
known wine grapes. 
North Carolina is one 
of the chief straw- 
berry-producing sec- 
tions of the United 
States. The straw- 
berry thrives especi- 
ally in the southeastern 




Fig. 



45- 



The value of orchard products in Nortit Carolina by counties, 
twelfth census. 



counties. 

Live-stock raising receives much attention 
in the Piedmont and Mountain sections of 



North Carolina are shipped out of the state. 

Manufactures. Man needs food, clothing, 

and shelter. Nature provides these things 















ii£ 


^ids^m 






^.~. -^^JHJ^S 


m 


^^3 




1 


m 


^ j j;,:^ 


pV 




1 


U^te? 


'r3l 


* , 


M 


HHHHIi 




tm^sS^B^ 


1^1 






■H 


^iH| 



Fig. 46. A dairy herd on a farm near Charlotte. 



the state. Dairying (Fig. 46) is an impor- 
tant industry in certain regions. Many cat- 
tle fattened on the fine grass in western 




Fig. 47. The density of urban population in North Carolina, twelfth censu 



in the raw state abundantly, and man must 
convert them into products that can be used 
to his advantage. This process we call 
manufacturing. 

Because of the fer- 
tility of the soil and 
the transportation 
facilities afforded by 
j the rivers, cities devel- 
oped first below the 
Fall Line. As much 
labor is needed in 
manufacturing, more 
and more people are 
drawn to factory 
towns, and thus great 



24 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




Fig. 48. The value of manujactured products in North 

centers of population develop. (Fig. 47.) 
Hence, with the coming of the railroad and 
the factory to the Piedmont, cities grew in 
that section much more rapidly than in the 
farming regions of the Coastal Plain. 

The leading industrial section, where more 
than three-fourths of the manufacturing 
of the state is carried on, is between 
Raleigh, Greensboro, and Charlotte. (Fig. 
48.) If we should follow the line of the 
Southern Railroad from Durham through 
Burlington, Greensboro, Salisbury, Con- 
cord, Charlotte, and Gastonia, we would 
pass through the center of the cotton industry. 

North Carolina factories consume more 
bales of cotton than those of any other 
southern state, and Gaston County leads 
in the numliiT of factories and the amount 




of capital invested. 
In 1880 there were 
only forty-nine cotton 
factories in the state. 
Now (191 1) there are 
331. (Fig. 49.) These 
factories use more 
than 755,667 bales of 
cotton annually, while 
the state's yield is 
only about 649,000 
Carolina, tweljth census. bales. Thus her fac- 
tories consume 100,000 more bales of cotton 
than are raised in the state. As North Caro- 
lina cotton is unsuited for certain grades of 
cloth, more than 3,000 bales of cotton are 
imported from West India and Egypt. 
North Carolina is second only to Massa- 




FlG. 50. A steam sawmill with log, yard among, the 
foothills near Franklin. 



Fig. 49. A large cotton mill near Raleigh. 



chusetts in the amount of cotton manufac- 
tured. In comparison. Great Britain manu- 
factures about five times as much cotton as 
North Carolina; Germany, three times as 
much ; and France, twice as much. As for- 
eign labor is more skilled than that of North 
Carolina, these countries make the finer 
goods. North Carolina and other southern 
states, as a rule, making the coarser goods. 

Woolen mills are found in Spray, Snow 
Camp, Weaverville, Lincolnton, Newton, 
Patterson, Winston-Salem, Leaksville, Elkin, 
and IMount Airy. There are silk factories in 
Wadesboro, Fayetteville, and High Point. 

If we follow the belt of hardwood from 
Alamance County through Guilford, David- 
son, Randolph, Forsyth, Surry, Davie, Ire- 
dell, Catawba, and Caldwell counties, we 
shall find most of the furniture factories 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



25 



in these counties. In 
production Guilford 
County leads all the 
others, with High 
Point as the greatest 
center for the manu- 
facture of furniture in 
the South. Thomas- 
ville is well known 
for its manufacture 
of chairs. 

The tobacco fac- 
tories are all located 
in the tobacco belt. 




t-.;V., ■ Less th 



Fig. 51 

Winston-Salem, Dur- 
ham, Reidsville, and Wilson are the tobacco 
towns. These places have been built up on 
the tobacco industry. Their products are 
sent to all parts of the world. 

The forests of long-leaf pine, oak, hickory, 
cypress, and juniper encourage the manu- 
facture of lumber, and in almost every 
cotmty the sawmill is busy converting timber 
into lumber. Other factories are engaged in 
making this lumber into all kinds of building 
material. There are more than 200 lumber 
plants in the state. (Figs. 21, 50, and 51.) 

The clay deposits offer excellent opportu- 
nities for brick making. More than thirty-five 
large plants are engaged ii) making building, 
ornamental, and pressed brick, and tihng. 

There are sixty-four large flouring and 
grist mills in the state. These are found 
chieflv in the Piedmont and Moiontain sec- 



$2,500 per square mile ^^m $2,500 per squaye mite and aver 

uc of lumber and timber products in North Carolina, twelfth census. 



tions, where wheat and corn are the leading 
crops. From these mills carloads of flour 
and meal are shipped to all parts of the 
country. Factories for the canning of fruits 
and vegetables are found chiefly at Elkin, 
Reidsville, and at Morganton. The Girls' 
Tomato Clubs have greatly encouraged this 
industry. Breakfast foods are prepared at 
Asheville and rice mills are located at Golds- 
boro. Salad oil and cooking fats are made 
from cottonseed oil manufactured in the state. 
One of the newer industries is a great plant 
at Canton, in Haywood County, for making 
wood pulp for the manufactiu^e of paper. 
(Fig. 52.) This plant consumes more than 600 
cords of chestnut, oak, hemlock, and pine a 
day and employs more than 1,200 men. The 
pulp, like thick blotting paper, comes out in 
broad sheets that roll up, and in this form is 
ready to be shipped to the paper factories. 




Fig. 52. A pulp mill near Canton. This mill has a capacity of ten carloads of paper pulp per day. 



26 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



While most of the manufacturing plants 
are engaged in manufacturing clothing, food- 
stuffs, building materials, and furniture, 
several hundred other factories are engaged 
in making many varied products. (Fig. 53.) 

When a child is born he may be wrapped 
in clothes made in North Carolina mills, 
his cradle may come from High Point, his 
bed from Goldsboro, Mebane, or Salisbury; 
the ticking for his mattress from many dif- 
ferent cotton mills; the blankets that cover 



o 10 20 JO 40 ^0 60 70 So go TOO rro rzo rjo 140 iKO 



iqos-- 
tgoo.. 



tS7o- 
tSbo.. 
,Sso. 



-L^ 



t — \ — u 



^\ Fig. 53. The growth of manufactures in 
" ' North Carolina for six decades, and for 
the year 190}, in millions of dollars. 

him, from Spray, Patterson, Leaksville, or 
Winston-Salem; and the quilts from Ashe- 
ville. As he grows older, the leather for 
his shoes may come from Asheville, Old 
Fort, Sylva, or North Wilkesboro; his shoes 
from Rutherford College, Winston-Salem, or 
High Point ; his suspenders from High Point ; 
the wick for his lamp from Lawndale. His 
clothes — if ready-made — are probably manu- 
factured in Charlotte, Mooresville, Rocky 
Mount, Durham, or Wilmington; while his 
hose can be had from eighty or more knitting 
mills in the state. His buggies, carts, and 
wagons may be made at thirty different 
factories from Elizabeth City almost to 
Asheville. If he wishes an automobile it 
can be had from Henderson; machinery for 
mills from Greensboro or Charlotte ; baskets 
for the farm from .Greenville, Elizabeth 
City, and High Point; packing boxes from 
Winston-Salem, Reidsville, Mount Olive, and 
Goldsboro. His brooms may be made in 
Lexington, Hickory, or Durham; fertilizers 
for his crops in Wilmington, Raleigh, New- 
bem, Selma, Farmville, Reidsville, Goldsboro, 
or Durham; his pumps for water supply in 



Bryson or Hickory ; his window shades and 
stoves at Greensboro. Mirrors for his house 
may come from High Point or Lexington; 
organs for his church from High Point. 
When he is ill his medicine will probably be 
made from plants gathered in the western 
part of the state. Finally, when he comes to 
die he may be buried in a coffin made in Rose 
Hill, Advance, Burlington, Charlotte, High 
Point, Reidsville, or North Wilkesboro. 

These products represent the varied indus- 
tries through which the Piedmont is rapidly 
becoming one of the greatest industrial re- 
gions of the cotmtry. Yet every section of 
the state is turning to manufacturing. 

Railroads and Highways. The railroad 
is doing much to facilitate trade and com- 
merce, for owing to the lack of good harbors, 
North Carolina's commerce is largely carried 
on by the railroads. There are 4,576 miles of 
railroad in the state. (Fig. 54.) 

Within North Carolina there are five great 
railroad systems. These great roads, together 
with the smaller independent lines, carry the 
surplus products of the farms and the man- 
ufactured goods of the cities to all parts of 



iqio. 
igoo. 
iSqo. 
'SSo. 
iSjo. 
iSbo. 
iSjo. 



^^^\ Fig. 54. The railroad mileage in 
> A'orth Carolina for senen decades, in 
thousa7ids of miles. 

the country, bringing in return articles needed 
but not produced at home. (Figs. 56 and 57.) 
In the early days when food, clothing, and 
utensils were all produced at home, rough, 
rocky, or muddy roads were no great hin- 
drance, for there was little travel or exchange 
of goods. To-day the city is dependent 
upon the country for food, clothing, and 
building material, the surplus from the farms 
being exchanged in foreign markets or manu- 
factured into products which are resold to 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



27 




Fig. 



One oj .\orth Caroiina's iieiv macadam ruads. 



the country. Farm products reach the rail- 
roads and are sent to all parts of the world 
through many of the cities and towns, which 
grew up with the coming of the railroads. 
(Fig. 56.) Therefore it is necessary that 
the farms be connected with the towns and 
cities by good highways or country roads. 
For in order to facilitate travel and the sale 
and exchange of goods a state needs good 
roads as well as railroads. This need has 
created much interest everywhere in the 
building of good roads. North Carolina 
appropriates 85,000 annually to be expended 
in giving advice and engineering assistance 
to the counties of the state, while counties 
issue bonds, which are ^old, the money 
received being applied to road bioilding. 
One-half of the counties of the state are 











m 


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[g 


1 


^' 


1 






m 


09 


1 






m 


KJH 



already actively engaged in building good 
roads. (Fig. 55.) A great highway from 
New York to Atlanta crosses the Piedmont 
section of the state, and another great high- 
way from the seacoast to the Tennessee line 
is now being constructed. 

Trade and Commerce. As settlements 
mcreased along the rivers of the Coastal 
Plain agricultural products increased, with 
gradually a larger and larger surplus. Mar- 
kets for this surplus must be found outside 
the state. Hence a merchant class developed 
whose business it was to ship these products 
to other states and countries, buying in return 
articles needed by the settlers. In this way 




Fig. 56. M'ir\tt!ng tobacco at Clayton. 



Fig. 57. Freight cars being loaded with blankets. Here 
the goods are taken directly from fireproof ware- 
houses and put aboard the cars. 

towns sprang up. As a rule the chief towns 
of this region developed either near the 
mouths of the rivers or near the Fall Line. 
Thus Edenton sprang up near the mouth 
of the Roanoke and Weldon near the Fall 
Line. On the Tar, Washington was estab- 
lished near the mouth and Tarboro near 
the Fall Line. On the Cape Fear, Wilming- 
ton was located near the mouth and 
Fayette ville near the Fall Line. Because 
the Cape Fear River affords the best harbor 
on the coast, Wilmington grew rapidly 
and was until recently the largest city 
in North Carolina. 



28 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




Fig. 58. 



CopTTigh^ 1910. hj KeyBtone 

.4 bird's-eye view of Asheville. Mount Pisgah 
rises in the background. 



In the Piedmont section towns and cities 
were few until after the coming of the rail- 
road. The settlers of this section traded 
through the towns at the Fall Line, either in 
North Carolina or in neighboring states. 

Since the Civil War the railroad has 
connected the Piedmont with every other 
section of North Carolina and with all the 
other states of the Union. Now the direct 
highway from New York to Florida is across 
the central section of the state, and along 
the lines of these railroads are found the 
largest cities in North Carolina. (Fig. 2.) 
In transportation the railroads have now 
practically taken the place of the rivers, 
which played so important a part in the 
settlement and industrial development of the 
state. With the coming of the railroad 
the center of wealth and population moved 
gradually from the Coastal Plain to the 
Piedmont section, which is to-day the center 
of the business activity of the state. Here 
flourishing manufacturing towns have been 
built up, such as Charlotte, the first city, in 
size, Asheville (Fig. 58), Raleigh (Fig. 28), 
Winston-Salem, Durham (Fig. 59), Greens- 
boro, Salisbury, and High Point. 

Government. The chief purpose of a gov- 
ernment is to protect life and property and 
to secure to every citizen the opportunity to 
make the most possible of his life. 



As the number of inhabitants increased 
in the state more laws were needed, more 
courts were established, and the Governor's 
responsibilities grew greater and greater. A 
legislative body was needed to make the laws 
for the people, a judicial system to admin- 
ister justice between man and his neighbor, 
and an executive was needed to execute the 
laws. Out of these needs grew the three 
divisions of government — legislative, judi- 
cial, and executive. 

After the Revolution, under the new gov- 
ernment each state now elected its own 
governor, legislature, and judges. The 
state must now take part in the national 
government. Two senators and ten con- 
gressmen are elected to sit in the national 
Congress, the former for six years and the 
latter for two years. (Fig. 60.) The people 
of the state also choose twelve electors 
(the number is always equal to the number 
of congressmen and senators), who, together 
with the electors from the other states, elect 
the President of the United States. 

The Governor, who administers the state 
government, and his council, which is com- 
posed of the Secretary of State, Treasurer, 
Auditor, Attorney General, Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, and Lieutenant Gover- 
nor, are each elected for four years, the 
members of the General Assembly for two 
years, and the justices of the Supreme Court 
and the Superior Courts for eight years. 




Fig. 59. One of the business streets of Durliam. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



29 



Education. When 
the first settlers came 
to North Carolina the 
rivers, forests, and 
soil supplied all that 
man needed. Life was 
simple. Little skill 
was needed to make a 
living, and education 
was thought neces- 
sary only for the man 
who was preparing to 
enter the learned pro- 
fessions, such as law, medicine, the ministrv', 
or teaching. Hence there were few schools, 
and these were private institutions. 

To-day, without skilled labor and scientific 
treatment, the soil will not yield sufficient 
foodstuff and clothing material for man's 
needs. Trained minds and skilled hands are 
needed to convert raw materials into finished 
products. The soil must be made to yield 
twice as much as it is now producing. The 
factories must turn out finer goods, or North 
Carolina cannot compete with the other 
states. These conditions make education a 
public necessity for all the people. 

A public -school system was established in 
North Carolina in 1840; but it was not until 
about 1900 that the state became seriously 
aroused to the necessity of providing better 
schools for all the people. In that year there 





Fig. 61. The leading educational institutions of North Carolina. 



The Congressional districts of North Carolina in igog. 

were thirty schools supported by local taxa- 
tion; to-day there are more than 1,100 such 
schools to be found in the state. In 1900 
North Carolina expended $1,091,226 for 
school purposes; in 1910 the expenditure 
exceeded $3,500,000. 

The state has established a fund for build- 
ing schoolhouses, and practically for the 
past eight years a new schoolhouse has been 
built every day of each year. Throughout 
the state the average school term has been 
increased from about three and one-half 
months to about five months, while in all 
the towns and cities, and in some townships 
and counties, the schools run eight, nine, or 
ten months. State high schools have been 
established, and $75,000 is appropriated 
annually for their support. The farm-life 
school, where agriculture and kindred sub- 
jects are taught, has 
also been established. 
North Carolina 
leads all the South 
Atlantic states in 
universities, colleges, 
and schools which 
give advanced train- 
ing in the arts and 
sciences. These 
higher institutions, 
together with the 
elementary and higb 



30 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



schools of the state, 
form the state public- 
sclioo] system. The 
University (Fig. 62), 
the College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic 
Arts, the State Normal 
and Industrial College, 
the East Carolina 
Teacher's Training 
School, and the several 
public normal schools 
are supported by state 
appropriations, while 
Trinity College, Wake Forest College, David- 
son College, Guilford College, and others are 
supported by endowments, private benefac- 
tions, and denominational aid. (Fig. 61.) 

Compulsory education is now being advo- 
cated throughout the state, and a few cities 
and coimties have already introduced the 
compulsory system. There is a state school 
for the feeble-minded and for the deaf, dumb, 
and blind. 

Since 1900 libraries have been established 
in 2,420 schools, while nearly all of the city 




schools have good 
working libraries. In 
connection with the 
schools, clubs have 
been formed for im- 
proving schoolhouses 
and grounds. Corn 
Clubs, Tomato Clubs, 
and Cotton Clubs have 
been organized for 
studying the possibili- 
ties of the soil and for 
practical training in 
agriculture. 
Manual training, domestic science, home 
economics, commercial life, agriculture, and 
public health are some of the subjects that 
are now being taught in the public schools. 
Greater and greater improvements are being 
made in bmlding and eqtiipping school- 
houses, in the teaching force, in the course 
of study, and in the attendance of pupils. 
The movement is toward the development of 
a school system that will prepare the pupils 
to take an active and intelligent place in 
the world of affairs. 



One of the buildings of the University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hilt. 



THE LEADING EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES 

1 St. Mary's College, R. C. Belmont. 

2 University of North Carolina. State. 

Chapel Hill. 

3 Presbyterian College. Charlotte. 

4 Elizabeth College, Luth., Charlotte. 

5 Biddle University, Presb. (colored), Char- 

lotte. 

6 Scotia University, Presb. (colored). Con- 

cord. 

7 Davidson College. Presb., Davidson. 

8 Trinity College. M. E. South, Durham. 

9 Elon College, Christian, Elon College. 

10 Greensboro Female College, M. E., Greens- 

boro. 

1 1 Guilford College, Friends. Guilford College. 
13 Lenoir College. Luth., Hickory. 

13 Davenport College. M. E.. Lenoir. 

14 Catawba College. Reformed. Newton. 



IS Meredith College, Bapt., Raleigh. 
[6 Peace Institute, Presb., Raleigh. 

17 St. Mary's School. Prot. Epis.. Raleigh. 

18 Shaw University, Bapt. (colored). Ra- 

leigh. 
iQ Southern Presbyterian College, Red 

Springs. 
!o Livingstone College, A. M. E. Z., Salisbury. 
2 1 Female College, Presb., Statesville. 

22 Wake Forest College, Bapt., Wake Forest. 

23 Atlantic Christian College, Christian, 

Wilson. 

24 Salem Female College, Moravian, Winston- 

Salem. 

SCHOOLS OF TECHNOLOGY 

25 Brick Normal and Agricultural Institute, 

Enfield. 

26 Agricultural and Mechanical College for 

the Colored Race, Greensboro. 



2 7 North Carolina College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts, Raleigh. 

PUBLIC NORMAL AND TRAINING 
SCHOOLS 
2S Appalachian Training School. Boone. 

29 Normal and Collegiate Institute, Ashe- 

ville. 

30 Cullowhee Normal School, CuUowhee. 

31 State Normal School (colored), EUzabeth 

City. 

32 State Normal School (colored), Fayette- 

ville. 

33 State Normal and Industrial College for 

Women. Greensboro. 

34 East Carolina Teacher's Training School, 

Greenville. 
! 35 Croatan Normal School (Indian), Pates. 
I 36 State Normal School, Winston-Salem. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



31 



IV. STATISTICS AND AIDS TO TEACHERS 



Statistics of the State of North Carolina by Coxinties, Twelfth Census and Census of 1910. 



Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick. . . . 
Buncombe.. . . 

Burke 

CabuTus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland . . 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe . . . 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson. . . . 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

IredeU 

Jackson 

Johnston 

Jones 

Lee 

Lenoir 

lancoln 

McDowell 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

Mecklenburg. . 

MitcheU 

Montgomer>'. . 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover. 

Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank. . . 

Pender 

Perquimans. . . 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond . . . . 

Robeson 

Rockingham . . 

Rowan 

Rutherford . . 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Stokes 

Surry 



1849 
1847 
i8s9 
1749 
1799 



1754 
1669 
1870 



1849 
1778 
1846 
1778 
1872 
1746 
1783 
1771 
I7S8 
18SS 
1808 
1838 
1759 
1911 
1729 
1788 
1851 
1746 
1778 
190S 
1791 
1778 
1842 
1828 
i8si 
1774 
1762 
1861 
1778 
1784 
1777 
1729 



1871 
1669 
1875 
1669 
1791 
1760 
185s 
1778 
1779 
1786 
178s 
1753 
■ 778 
1784 
1900 
1841 
1789 
1771 



70S 
466 
.043 
573 
483 
547 



POPULATIOM 



14.432 
49.798 
21.408 
26.240 
20.570 

S.640 
13.776 
14.858 
27.918 
22.63s 
14.136 
11.303 

3.909 
29.494 
28.020 
25.594 
35.284 

7.693 

4.841 
29,404 
13.394 
25.442 
35.276 
32.010 
47.311 
24.692 
37.063 
I0.45S 

4.749 
25. 102 
13.083 
60,497 
37.646 



34.315 
12.998 
41.401 
8.721 
11.376 
22.769 
17.132 
13.538 



17.797 
67.031 
17.245 
14.967 



15.064 
9.966 
16.693 
1S.471 
11.054 
17.356 
36.340 
7.640 
29.491 
19.673 
51.945 
36.442 
37.521 
28.385 
29.982 
IS. 363 
19.909 
20,151 
29.705 



25.66s 
10.960 
7.759 
21.S70 
19.5S1 



20.538 
■7.677 
12.657 
44,288 
17.699 
22,456 
15.694 

5.474 
ll.Sll 
IS.028 
22.133 
23.912 
11.860 
10,258 

4.532 
25.078 
21.274 
24,160 
29.249 

4.757 
23.403 
12.115 
22,405 
25,233 
26.591 
35.261 
25.116 
27,903 
10.413 

4.343 
23.263 
12.038 
39.074 
30,793 



18,639 
15.498 
12,567 
12,104 
20,644 
IS.383 
55.268 
15.221 
14.197 
23.622 
25.478 
25.785 
21.150 
11.940 
1 4.69 ^ 

8,04s 
13.660 
13.381 
10,001 
16,685 
30,889 

7,004 
28,232 
15.855 
40,371 
33.163 
31.066 



\RM PROPERTY 
INCLUDIXG 
LIVE STOCK 



$2,671,967 
1,640,496 
2.172.355 
2.499,125 

4.542.767 

2.239.945 
2,056,640 
1.636,871 
958,876 
6,627,473 
2.436.833 

2.059.443 
2.645.776 
1.002.500 

584.272 
2.150,886 
3,302,930 
3,047,351 
1.263,261 

882.545 

731.719 
4.022,296 
2,034,074 
1.678.852 
2.569.944 
1,049,030 

202,856 
4.188.577 
1.869,989 
2.810,233 
1.687.740 
3.137.348 
3.698.012 
2.646,762 
3.256.452 
1.330,742 

463.311 
2.952.865 
2.160,956 

3.390.770 
1.819,209 
3.093.348 
2.313,014 
1.813.596 



2.019.142 
4.216,859 
1,488,512 
4.383,438 
1.202.738 

2.'526.5i5 
2.378.424 
1.778.323 
1.520.146 
2.567.028 
1.582,179 
6.399,186 
2.121.453 
1. 311. 773 
2.440.99s 
2,848,843 
550 055 
2.306.720 
1.242.175 

671.596 
1.246.911 
1.596.044 
1.451,668 
1,744,066 
4.335.272 

990,827 
4,045,158 
1.355.998 
5.396.836 
3.586,778 
3.759,928 
3,091,926 
3.718,494 
2.417.529 
1.812,065 
2.954.810 
3.168,103 



PRODUCTS 
NOT FED TO 
LIVE STOCK 



7S2.507 
504.448 
401,998 



844.673 
,023,790 
579.541 



COUNTY SEAT 



.031.281 
150.873 
274.310 
457. 25S 
!.2io.3i5 

907.172 

!.23l,58i 
682.513 



284.927 


18,998 


162.643 


180,036 


866.039 


85.474 


879.456 


1,578,711 


.097,806 


463.384 


412.927 


110.852 


373.579 


599.424 


233.001 


37.010 


.172.472 


1.526.431 


715.763 


893.369 


592.848 


2.334.457 


908,002 


1.660,375 


298,961 


23.317 


51.765 


42,657 


,141,430 


1,046.589 


488.079 


245.381 


,079,204 


180,384 


491,891 


8,443,912 


,650,094 


1.163.129 


899.133 


8.156.895 


,294,286 


383.837 


874.309 


3,947.200 


528.348 


84,028 


149.096 


18,980 


.176.764 


254.414 


.083.958 


82.004 


.216.294 


3.601. 216 


.855,628 


1. 391. 773 


686,550 


230.710 


613,851 


331.423 


484.680 


192.394 


698,600 


118.733 


2S5.S2S 


211,322 


.297.648 


1.131.721 


444.815 


280.037 


.820.012 


477.226 


476.804 


48,210 


.185.009 


692.535 


631. .11 


937.758 


437.162 


354.321 


436.144 


98.863 


724,266 


425.887 


787.747 


270.888 


.859.390 


5.736.059 


598.668 


393.470 


498.019 


1.030.277 


857,258 


1.069 191 


,479.929 


561.146 


148,212 


3. 131.899 


,235,847 


349. 55S 


420,388 


165.629 


660.866 


363.154 


282.169 


206.710 


393.454 


979.480 


473.413 


98.569 


578,013 


303.759 


768.898 


251,691 


!. 173.929 


896,681 


306,281 


87,464 


.039.355 


2,259,603 


682 746 


1,192,096 


2,166.431 


907,687 


,358.600 


2,865.312 


.286.510 


2.320,674 


876,433 


1.779. 552 


.259.255 


323.963 


836,686 


609.193 


743,88s 


1.127.189 


1.017,766 


277.763 


870,521 


1.397.998 



Graham 

Taylors\'ille 

Sparta 

Wadesboro 

Jefferson 

Elk Park 

Washington 

Windsor 

EUzabethtown . 

Southport , 

AsheviUe 

Morganton .... 

Concord 

Lenoir 

Camden 

Beaufort 

Yance>'ville .... 

ton 

Pittsboro 

Murphy 

Eden ton 

Havesville 

Shelby 

WhiteviUe 

Newbem 

Fayetteville . . . 

Currituck 

Man tec 

Lexington 

Mocksville 

Kenans vUle. . . . 

Durham 

Tarboro 

Wins ton -Salem 

Louisburg 

Gastonia 

GatesvUle 

Robbinsville . . . 

Oxford 

Snow Hill 

Greensboro .... 

HalUax 

Liliington 

Waynes\Tlle . . . 
Hendersonville . 

Win ton 

Raeford 

Swanquarter. . . 

Statesv'ille 

Webster 

Smithfield 

Trenton 

Sanford 

Kinston 

Lincolnton . . . . 

Marion 

Franklin 

Marshall 

Williamston . . . . 

Chariotte 

Bakersville . . . . 

Troy 

Carthage 

Nash^alle 

Wilmington . . . 

Jackson 

Jackson\-ille . . . 

Hillsboro 

Bayboro 

Elizabeth City . 

Burgaw 

Hertford 

Roxboro 

Green\'ille 

Columbus 

Asheboro 

Rockingham. . . 
Lumberton . . . . 

Wentworth 

Salisbury 

Rutherford ton 

Clinton 

: Laurinburg 

Albemarle 

Danbury 

j Dobson 



POPULATION 



1.336 
14.694 
1.938 



1.874 

634 

9.090 

4.670 



335 

337 

912 

18,091 



32 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



Statistics of the State of North Carolina by Counties, Twelfth Census and Census of igio — Continued. 



Transvlvani; 

T^ttM 

Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 
Watauga . . 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancev 



177S 
■ 799 
1849 
1779 
1777 
I8S5 
1 850 



AREA 


POPULATION 








1910 


igoo 


560 


10.403 


8,401 


371 


7. 191 


6.620 


397 


5. 219 


4.980 


561 


33.277 


27.156 


276 


19.42s 


16,684 


841 


63.229 


54.626 


432 


20,266 


19,151 


334 


It.062 


10,608 


330 


13.556 


13,417 


507 


35.698 


31,356 


718 


30.282 


26,872 


392 


28.269 


23,596 


334 


IS.428 


14.083 


>02 


12,072 


I.. 464 



I PROPERTY 
CLUDl.VG 
VE STOCK 



979. S19 
1. 221,602 

442.934 
3.389.813 
1. 535. 319 
S. 497. 611 
1,916,722 

974.331 
2,782,007 
3,.S99.74S 
3.412,640 
3.003,481 
2.401,870 



Population of the Leading Cities and Towns of North 
Carolina at Each Federal Census from 1850 to 1910. 



CITY 



Charlotte 

Wilmington. . . . 
Winston-Salem* 

Raleigh 

Asheville 

Durham 

Greensboro .... 

Newbem 

High Point 

Concord 

Elizabeth City . 
Rocky Mount. . 

Salisbury 

Fayetteville . . . 

Kinston 

Wilson 

Washington . . . 

Goldsboro 

Gastonia 

Reidsville 

Burlington .... 

Statesville 

Henderson .... 

Lexington 

Tarboro 

Greenville 

Monroe City . . . 
Thomasville . . . 
Mount Airy. . . . 

Hickory 

Mooresville .... 

Lenoir 

Shelby 

Oxford 

Belhaven 

Henderson ville . 

Edenton 

Morganton .... 

Graham 

Beaufort 

Lincolnton .... 
Wadesboro .... 

Laurinburg 

Newton 

Sanford 

Lumberton .... 
Kings Mountain 

Hamlet 

Plymouth 

Rockingham . . . 

Albemarle 

Morehead City . 
Wa>'nesvillc . . . 

Weldon 

Randleman .... 

Spencer 

North Wilkes- 

boro 

Caroleen 

Asheboro 

Henrietta 

Hertford 

Dunn 

Louisburg 

Scotland Neck . 
Roanoke 

Rapids 

Forest City 

Williamston . . . 
Bessemer City . 
Marion 

♦ Previous to 



18,762 
[8,241 
15.895 
9.961 
9.525 
8.715 
8,412 
8,051 
7. 153 
7.045 
6,995 
6,717 

6,211 

6,107 
S.759 
4,82,S 
4,So8 
4.509 
4.S03 
4.163 



4.0S2 
3..S77 
3.844 
3.716 
3.400 
3.364 
3.127 



2.483 
2.413 
2.376 



[S,ogi 
20,976 
r3.6so 
13.643 
14.694 
6,670 
10,035 

4.163 
7.910 
6,348 
2.937 
6,277 
4.670 
4.106 
3.525 
4.842 
5.S77 
4.6.0 
3.262 
3.692 
3. 141 
3.746 
1.234 
2.499 
2,565 
2.427 

751 
2.680 
2.535 
1.533 
1,296 
1.874 
2,059 

3S3 
1,017 
3,046 
1.938 



5.485 
3.317 
7.843 



2,969 
1,716 
2,3lS 
4,101 
1.440 
1,924 
1,037 
1,866 



1,064 

455 

1,286 

1.754 



7. 004 
17.350 
4.194 



4.473 
13.446 
443 
7.790 
1,400 



2.420 


1,086 


4. 700 


4.646 


1.333 


455 


960 




1.590 


2.015 


885 





1880 no returns given for Salem 



163,999 
1.367.0SS 

m63;Si. 
851,982 
364,169 
544.793 

1.670,462 
876,444 

1,520,510 
588,359 
460. S21 



156,090 
48.517 
31.664 

594.999 

530.037 
!. 641, 730 

190,108 



874,289 
538.050 
354.513 



COUN- 



Bryson. . . . 
Brevard.. . 
Columbia. . 
Monroe.... 
Henderson . 
Raleigh . . . 
Warren ton. 
Plymouth . 

Boone 

GoUisboro . 
Wilkesboro 
Wilson. . . . 
YadkinviUe 



POPULATION 



919 

848 
4.082 
4.503 



3.746 

13.643 

836 



Farm Statistics of North Carolina with Percentage of 

Increase, Twelfth Census and State 

Estimates of 1910. 



Number of farms 

Total acreage 

Improved acreage 

Average acres per farm. . 

Value of land and build- 
ings 

Value of land 

Value of buildings 

Value of implements and 
machinery 

Average value per acre of 
land and buildings , , . 

Average value per acre of 
land 

Expenditures for labor. , 

Fertilizers 



1900 




PER CENT 

OF 
INCREASE 


224.637 

22.740.000 

8.327.000 


13 

6 

*13 


$104,656.0 
141.956.0 


"o.'oo 


134 
141 
IIS 


9.073.0 


8,56 


103 
138 


s.445.0 
4.479.0 


6,24 


145 

6g 
173 



*Decrea5e, 

The Leading Manufacturing Cities of North Carolina 

and Facts about their Industrial Plants, Twelfth 

Census and Census Bulletin 39, 1905.* 



CITY 


YEAR 


OF 
PLANTS 


OF WAGE 


AMOU.S-T 
OF WAGES 


VALUE OF 


Winston-Salem 

Durhamt 

Charlotte 

Wilmington , , . 

Asheville 

Greensboro . . . 

Newbem 

Raleigh 


1005 
igoo 
1005 
1900 
1005 

1905 
1900 
1005 
igoo 

1900 
1905 
1900 
1905 
rooo 


47 
40 

82 
73 

55 
131 

45 
135 

65 

79 

sl 

42 

135 


4.850 
3.420 

'2. 7 87 

2.234 
2,988 
1,667 
I.S50 

702 
1. 136 
1,161 
1. 587 

762 
1,162 

585 
1.358 


S9S5.596 
461.214 

535. 2S9 

693.482 

6gg,846 
632,g66 
568.250 
228,794 
354. 511 
338.671 
295.820 
276,070 
284,052 
225.787 
441.038 


$11,353,296 
5.436.030 

7.084,540 
4.849.630 
4,702,301 
3.155.458 
2. 060,028 
1,918,362 
1,866,109 
1,828,837 
1.790.523 
1.343.384 
I. 704. 251 
1,086,671 
2,204,056 



♦Statistics for 1905 include only factory products; for previous 

us, all products. 

tStatistics not given for igos to avoid disclosing individual 

operations. 

Elevation of Some of the Principal Heights in North 

Carolina. Dictionary of Altitudes, 

U. S. Geological Survey. 



Mount Mitchell 

Black Brothers 

Hairy Bear 

Balsam Cone 

Clingmans Dome 

Clingmans Peak 

Cattail Peak 

Mount Buckley 

Mount r.ibbs 

Rocky Trail Peak 

Bearwallow Mountain . 
Mount Alexander. . , . . 

Potato Knob 

Hallback 

Water Rock Knob 

Blackstock Knob 



■ITUDES 
6.711 
( 6,600 
16,620 
6,6Sl 
6,645 
6,619 
6,611 
6 609 
6.599 
6.501 
6,488 
6,487 
6.447 
6,419 
6,403 
6.390 
6,386 





LTITUDES 


Richland Balsam 




Mountain 


6,370 






Roan High Knob 


6313 


Roan High Bluff . . . . 


6,287 


Amos Plotts Balsam. . 


6.278 


Brother Plott 


6,246 


Chimney Peak 


6,234 


Deer Mountain 


6,233 


Grassy Ridge Bald . . . 


6,226 


Mount lunaleska 


6,223 


Jones Knob 


6,209 


Craggy Dome 


6,los 


Mount Hardv 


6,102 


Spruce Ridge Top . . . 


6,076 


Big Craggy Mountain 
Rocky Face 


6,068 


6,031